Principle of agglutination

Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HAI): Principle

Passive (indirect) agglutination Principle - coating antigen onto the surface of carrier particles like red blood cells, latex, gelatin, bentonite or charcoal. -background clears Examples of types - latex agglutination - passive hemagglutination (treated red blood cells made resistant) Examples of tests - agglutination for leptospirosis -Widal test (typhoid fever Definition of Agglutination Reaction History. Principle of Agglutination Reaction. The principle of agglutination reaction is based on the Clumping of antigen and... Steps of Agglutination. Sensitization: It is the primary stage where binding of antigen and antibody takes place The principle behind the hemagglutination test is that the nucleic acids of viruses encode proteins, such as hemagglutinin, that are expressed on the surface of the virus (Figs. 51.1 and 51.3). Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. The clumping of cells such as. Agglutination is an antigen-antibody reaction in which a particulate antigen combines with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a specified temperature and pH resulting in the formation of visible clumping of particles. It occurs optimally when antigens and antibodies react in equivalent proportions

The principle of Agglutination reactions are similar to precipitation reactions; they depend on the cross linking of polyvalent antigens. When the antigen is an erythrocyte it is called hemagglutination.Theoretically all antibodies can agglutinate particulate antigens but IgM, due to its high specificity is a particularly good agglutinin An agglutination reaction based on competition between particulate antigen (reagent) and soluble antigen (specimen) For limited sites on a reagent antibody Hemagglutination Inhibition detects antibidies to certain viruses that agglutinate RBC's in the presence of the antibody the virus is neutralized no hemagglutinatio Latex Agglutination Test Principle. The latex agglutination test is based on a reaction between latex beads and a specific antibody or antigen. So an example of saliva, blood or urine are taken to the lab, and in the lab, they are getting mixed with these latex beads coated with this specific antibody or antigen Introduction and principle of Brucella agglutination test Brucella agglutination test is a serological test for brucellosis. Other serological test for brucellosis are Standard Agglutination test, 2 Marceptoethanol (2ME) Agglutination test, Coombs' test, Complement fixation, Radioimmunoassay, ELISA and Rose bengal test

Add a drop of the antigen, which showed agglutination with the test sample in the screening (qualitative) method, to each circle. Mix the contents of each circle with the aid of applicator stick and rotate the slide gently. Observe for agglutination. Interpretation B. Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) for Antigen Detection. It is a Reverse Passive Agglutination Test. In this method, antibody is coated on the surface of latex beads to detect the antigen in the test sample. Principle of Latex Agglutination. Antibody or antigen molecules can be bound in random alignment to the surface of latex (polystyrene) beads

Principles of Agglutination. Precipitation and agglutination are the visible expression of the. Direct Agglutination Test: Cells (such as bacteria, fungus, and erythrocytes) and insoluble particulate antigens can be directly agglutinated by their specific antibodies. The antibody has two Fab arms with which it can bind to antigens on two cells. Likewise many antibody molecules bind with a number of cells to form a lattice Agglutination is the visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies. Agglutination reactions apply to particulate test antigens that have been conjugated to a carrier. The carrier could be artificial (such as latex or charcoal particles) or biological (such as red blood cells)

Agglutination - SlideShar

What is Agglutination Reaction? Definition, History, Steps

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Reverse passive agglutination Principle - antigen binds to soluble antibody coated on carrier particles and results in agglutination - detects antigensExample - detecting cholera toxin1/11/2013 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26 26. REVERSE PASSIVE Agglutination Tests • Antibody rather than antigen is attached to a carrier particle • For the detection. Principle behind blood tests: Blood clumping or Agglutination observation. Compatibility between the blood groups of donor and recipient determines the success of a blood transfusion. The AB0 and Rh blood groups are looked at while conducting the test. In a diagnostic lab, Monoclonal antibodies are available for A, B and Rh antigen Principle of CRP Test The C-Reactive Protein test is based on the principle of the latex agglutination. When latex particles complexed human anti-CRP are mixed with a patient's serum containing C reactive proteins, an visible agglutination reaction will take place within 2 minutes. Uses of CRP Tes Principle of RF test A number of methods are available for testing of RF. The most commonly used serological method is based on latex agglutination test. As RF is an IgM class of antibody directed against the Fc portion of the IgG molecule, it is detected by it's ability to agglutinate the latex particles coated with IgG molecule Principle of Brucella Test. It works on the principle of agglutination. 25 IU/mL in the patient serum will react with the antigen suspension to produce an agglutination reaction. No agglutination indicates the absence of detectable levels of the smooth, colored, killed Brucella antigen suspension is mixed with the patient serum

What is the principle of haemagglutination test

Video: Agglutination - definition, reactions and application

Agglutination. Agglutination is defined as the formation of clumps of cells or inert particles by specific antibodies to surface antigenic components (direct agglutination) or to antigenic components adsorbed or chemically coupled to red cells or inert particles (passive hemagglutination and passive agglutination, respectively) III Agglutination 1 Describe the principle of agglutination What affects the from BIO 101 at Breck Schoo Agglutination assays are usually quick and easy to perform on a glass slide or microtiter plate (Figure 1). Microtiter plates have an array of wells to hold small volumes of reagents and to observe reactions (e.g., agglutination) either visually or using a specially designed spectrophotometer Principle. Agglutination is the development of antigen-antibody complexes in the form of particle clumps (agglutinates) due to the interaction between the insoluble form of antigens (i.e., antigen associated with latex particles) and its soluble and specific antibodies (Fig. 3.5) [1, 2]. Why is agglutination dangerous?. Principle. Agglutination is the development of antigen-antibody complexes in the form of particle clumps (agglutinates) due to the interaction between the insoluble form of antigens (i.e., antigen associated with latex particles) and its soluble and specific antibodies (Fig. 3.5) [1, 2]

used for the degree of agglutination strength in Table 4·1, where grade 4 indicates the maximum strength of agglutination observed, are intended as a guideline, and these designations are also used in tables of results shown in this publication. In the United Kingdom, grade 5 is used for maximum strength instead of 4 Principle of RDTs: RDT is a qualitative and semi-quantitative - Vitro diagnostic medical device that works on the basis of immunochromatographic action like lateral flow or agglutination that forms the antigen-antibody complexes with the specific antigen of the pathogen from the given sample

Principle. Agglutination is the development of antigen-antibody complexes in the form of particle clumps (agglutinates) due to the interaction between the insoluble form of antigens (i.e., antigen associated with latex particles) and its soluble and specific antibodies (Fig. 3.5) [1, 2]. What are the two stages of agglutination reaction?. Negative wells (no red cell agglutination) have an intact button at the bottom of the well. Positive wells (red cell agglutination) demonstrate red cells settled as a fine carpet or appearing as a loose button with ragged or folded edges. The plates can be read with a reading mirror for microtitre plate with transmitted light from below The common name for various manufacturers' versions of column agglutination testing. Gel testing occurs in small columns filled with a viscous gel. The RBCs and plasma being tested are added to the chamber at the top of the column and incubated, followed by centrifugation to try to force the RBCs through the gel to the bottom of the column 1. Place 4 separate drops of 10 percent chicken red blood cells onto a glass slide or a white tile. 2. To each drop of blood, add one drop of the control and test samples as follows. Use separate tips, pipettes or a flamed loop to dispense each sample. 3. Mix by rotating the slide or tile for one minute Agglutination Test. Agglutination Test is a clinical assay used for the detection of Antibody or Antigen in body fluids such as saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood. In agglutination test antibodies react with antigens on cells and form visible clumps or aggregates which is called agglutinates

However the principle of the agglutination remain the same. Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques. Qualitative agglutination test. Semi-quantitative agglutination test. Qualitative Agglutination Test. Agglutination tests can be used in a qualitative manner to assay for the presence of an antigen or an antibody Cell suspensions should be between 2% and 5% for standard tube agglutination tests, with an ideal strength of about 3%. Much weaker suspensions are used for microcolumn techniques, such as gel card techniques (1% or less), and much stronger suspensions (25% to 50%) for tests performed on slides ABO Blood Group System. ABO blood grouping is based on the principle of an agglutination reaction. It is the popular method for blood group identification to determine the presence and absence of cellular antigens and their relative antibodies in the blood. In blood typing, the detection of antigen in the donor's RBCs is called forward typing (2) After appropriate incubation, the serum samples are examined for visible agglutination. The highest dilution of serum that shows agglutination is referred to as the titer. 2. Lysis a. Principle (1) In the presence of complement, an antigen-antibody reaction on a cell membrane may damage the membrane, leading to cell lysis (cytolysis) The basic principle is that after a certain dilution, the red dot will appear at the bottom of the well. The highest dilution of a given sample at which clumping is seen is considered as the.

For the hematologic condition, see red cell agglutination. Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay COLD AGGLUTINATION TEST Principle: Cold agglutination test is a heterophile tube agglutination test. Patients suffering from primary atypical pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae produce antibodies that react and agglutinate suspension of human O group RBC. Autoantibodies that agglutinate human erythrocytes at temperature less than 37 o C are called cold agglutinins agglutination test for brucellosis This is a serological test based on the principle of antigen (dead bacteria) and antibody (agglutinins present in the body fluids, mainly serum of infected animals) reaction, resulting in agglutination of bacteria PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD The Bacterial Antigens is a slide and tube agglutination test for the.

Latex Agglutination (Theory) : Immunology Virtual Lab I

Difference Between Agglutination and Precipitation Definition. Agglutination: Agglutination is the process of forming a solid mass from particles present in a solution. Precipitation: Precipitation is the process of forming insoluble solid mass from the reaction of ions present in a solution. Raw Material. Agglutination: The starting material for agglutination are the particles present in the. PRINCIPLE OF RF TEST. A number of methods are available for testing of RF. The most commonly used serological method is based on latex agglutination test. As RF is an IgM class of antibody directed against the Fc portion of the IgG molecule,. Principle: The ABO and Rh blood grouping system is based on agglutination reaction. When red blood cells carrying one or both the antigens are exposed to the corresponding antibodies they interact with each other to form visible agglutination or clumping. The ABO blood group antigens are O-linked glycoproteins in which the termina However the principle of the agglutination remain the same. Slides, Test tubes. Micotiterplates. Applications. Agglutination reactions now have a wide variety of applications in the detection of both antigens and antibodies including: Blood grouping, Diagnosis of infectious & non-infectious diseases C- Reactive Protein Latex Agglutination Test: Principle, Procedure and Result A guide in performing C- Reactive Protein Latex Agglutination test in the laboratory and understanding its principle. Principle: Latex particles coated with antibody to CRP are reacted with patient serum. In this case, the CRP is acting as the antigen

Rose Bengal plate test (RBT) for Brucella: Principle

Agglutination & Precipitation • Agglutination reactions are similar in principle to precipitation reactions; they depend on the cross linking of polyvalent antigens with the exception that: • Precipitation reactions involve soluble antigens, while agglutination involves particulate antigens • Pecipitation reactions represent a phase. A modification of the agglutination reaction, called agglutination inhibition, provides a highly sensitive assay for small quantities of an antigen.For example, one of the early types of home pregnancy test kits included latex particles coated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and antibody to HCG (Figure 6-8). The addition of urine from a pregnant woman, which contained HCG, inhibited.

Different Principles of Agglutination Flashcards Quizle

Principle: Latex particles coated with anti-HCG antibodies are allowed to react with female urine. If HCG is present in urine, agglutination will be observed. Quantitative blood or serum beta tests might be used to measure the HCG levels, as low as 1 mIU/mL, while urine test strips detect the thresholds of 10 mIU/mL to 100 mIU/mL Principle of Widal test: Widal test is an agglutination test in which specific typhoid fever antibodies are detected by mixing the patient's serum with killed bacterial suspension of Salmonella carrying specific O, H, AH and BH antigens and observed for clumping ie. Antigen-antibody reaction

Latex Agglutination Test: Procedure, Principle,Types

Latex agglutination test, Antistreptolysin O Antibody, Flocculation test, Hemagglutination methods, and Monospot. What is the use of the latex agglutination test. To check for certain antibodies or antigens. What is the principle behind the latex aggultination test In order to detect blood group, RBCs are allowed to react with serum which contains corresponding agglutinins and so agglutination occurs. Saline suspension of red cells is mixed with antisera A, antisera B, antisera D and agglutination looked for, presence or absence of agglutination may be confirmed by microscope examination of the sample particles). In general, for visual slide agglutination the particle diameter range is 0.2- 0.9mm, whereas for light scattering immunoassays the diameter range is 0.01-0.3mm. The major problem of particle-based assays, which require careful attention, is the nonspecific agglutination. The presence of this nonspecific agglutination has been on


Brucella Agglutination test: Principle, Procedure and

  1. utes to occur after the addition of the reagent. Direct antiglobulin testing may also be measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, or other immunoassay techniques
  2. ed by naked eye
  3. Complement fixation test: principle, procedure, result interpretation, applications and limitations Principle of complement fixation test: Complement fixation test is used to detect and quantify antibody in serum that does not form visible precipitate or agglutinate when reacted with antigen until complement is used. Complement is a heat labile globular protein present in normal serum
  4. Agglutination is the clumping of particles. Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner found another important practical application of the agglutination reaction in 1900. Chapter 6: Antigen-Antibody Interactions maximal precipitation, which occurs in the agglutination reaction. Applications of Radial Immunodiffusion
  5. ates the need to wash red cells, which decreases the overall test time
  6. Complement Fixation Test - Principle, Components, Procedure, Advantages, Disadvantages. In complement fixation test, Complement is used which is a biologically labile serum factor that causes the immune cytolysis i.e. lysis of antibody-coated cells which is found in normal serum. Our whole complement system is made up of a total of nine.

Cross Matching : Types, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation. Cross matching is a procedure performed prior to transfusion of blood or blood products to detect any serological incompatibilities in the blood of donor and recipient. Before a donor's blood is transfused into a recipient, there should be no antigens or antibodies in both, that. Rapidly identify and differentiate Lancefield group of streptococci using the Thermo Scientific Streptex Latex Agglutination Test. The test utilizes latex particles sensitized with group-specific antibodies which agglutinate in presence of homologous antigens principle of Leishman stain. Leishman stain is a differential stain which use to stain various components of cells. This stain contains methylene blue and eosin. Methylene blue is a basic dye that stains acidic component of cells and eosin is an acidic dye which stains basic components of cells Principle of the Rheumatoid Factor test. The rheumatoid factor is an anti-antibody. This can be detected in the laboratory by its ability to bind and form clumps with latex particles or red blood. The main principle of widal test is that if homologous antibody is present in patients serum, it will react with respective antigen in the reagent and gives visible clumping on the test card and agglutination in the tube. The antigens used in the test are H and O antigens of Salmonella Typhi and H antigen of S. Paratyphi

Widal Test : Principle, Procedure, Result Interpretation

  1. The Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System is a qualitative and semi-quantitative test system for the detection of capsular polysaccharide antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans. Latex agglutination test has both diagnostic and prognostic value since progressive disease is usually accompanied by increasing antigen titers
  2. g visible clumps. This reaction is termed agglutination. Agglutination is a serological reaction and is very.
  3. The agglutination of an antigen, as a result of crosslinking by antibodies, is dependent on the correct proportion of antigen to antibody. Reading the 96-well plate: If sufficient antibody is present to agglutinate and form cross-linking with the antigen, the antibody-antigen complex forms a mat at the bottom of the well
  4. Principle. Agglutination is the development of antigen-antibody complexes in the form of particle clumps (agglutinates) due to the interaction between the insoluble form of antigens (i.e., antigen associated with latex particles) and its soluble and specific antibodies (Fig. 3.5) [1, 2]. Why is agglutination dangerous?.
  5. Download Citation | The Principle of Mixed Agglutination Applied to Tissue Culture Systems | A new method for study of blood-group antigens on human embryonic tissue using tissue culture technique.
  6. SUMMARY OF TEST PRINCIPLE AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test is a treponemal test for the serologic detection of antibodies to the various species and subspecies of pathogenic Treponema, the causative agents of syphilis, yaws, pinta, bejel, and endemic syphilis
  7. HAEMAGGLUTINATION ASSAY - VIRAL QUANTITATION. Haemagglutination assay was developed by American virologist George Hirst in 1941-1942. The ability of certain viruses to bind with the red blood cells through their superficial glycoproteins and proteins had been utilised to quantitate these viruses and the assay is termed as haemagglutination assay

The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the gold standard for sero‐diagnosis of leptospirosis because of its unsurpassed diagnostic specificity. It uses panels of live leptospires, ideally recent isolates, representing the circulating serovars from the area where the patient became infected The same principle applies to agglutination, which involves the clumping together of cells. Agglutination is often used by your body's immune system to clump toxins or pathogens together

sive agglutination assay where the antigen is bound to an inert substance and then mixed with patient serum containing the pos-sible antibody. Serially diluted serum samples are placed in a mi-crotiter plate to which the viral antigen and the RBCs are added. The last serial dilution that yields total inhibition of agglutination The Principle of Mixed Agglutination Applied to Tissue Culture Systems The Principle of Mixed Agglutination Applied to Tissue Culture Systems Högman, Claes 1959-01-01 00:00:00 .Quthora' address: Drs. Patricia C. Brown, L. E. Clynn and E. J. Holhorow, Rheumatism Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Canadian Red Cross Memorial Hospital

Latex agglutination test - Procedure, Principle

  1. Explain the principle of the latex agglutination test. Understanding Antibodies and Antigens: Antibodies are defined as a blood protein that's created by the immune system as a direct response.
  2. What does agglutination mean? The act or process of agglutinating; adhesion of distinct parts. (noun
  3. Particle agglutination test. The presence of an antigen or anti-bodies in a blood sample can be found out using either the Particle Agglutination Test (PAT) or by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The PAT is performed using substances that will facilitate the process of agglutination
  4. e a.
  5. The principle of the test is based on the gel technique described by Yves Lapierre2 in 1985 for detecting red blood cell agglutination reactions. The DG Gel 8 plastic cards are composed of eight.
  6. Carriers used in agglutination methods could be artificial (e.g., latex or charcoal) or biological (e.g., erythrocytes ). There are various methods of agglutination reactions that follow the same principle, but they differ in the elements they employ based on the desired endpoint and the main purpose of the test. Key Term

Agglutination Methods Oncohema Ke

  1. Free, Online, Multi-Media Texts: The indirect agglutination test is described as indirect because the material that is being agglutinated is not the inherent carrier of the antigen but instead an artificial one. This test is also described as a passive agglutination test. See by contrast the direct agglutination test in which cells are employed.
  2. Qualitative agglutination test Agglutination tests can be used in a qualitative manner to assay for the presence of an antigen or an antibody. The antibody is mixed with the particulate antigen and a positive test is indicated by the agglutination of the particulate antigen. (Figure 7)
  3. The principle of using anti-human globulins was first described by Moreschi in 1908, 1 but it was not until 1945 that Robin Coombs introduced it to clinical medicine initially as a method to demonstrate RBC agglutination in the presence of what was then thought to be an incomplete or blocking antibody as seen within the context of the IAT. 2 When testing patient plasma for the.
  4. • Two principle subgroups of A are: A 1 and A 2 • Both react strongly with reagent anti-A • To distinguish A 1 from A 2 red cells, the lectin Dolichos Check for agglutination against well lighted background. 2 vol of test serum/plas ma 1 vol of 5% suspension of reagent red cells in respective tubes Reverse Groupin
  5. 1000 times more sensitive than agglutination . Concept. Principle of RIA involves competitive binding of radiolabeled Ag and unlabeled Ag to a high affinity Ab · The increase in the concentration of the Ag in the unlabeled test sample, the more radiolabeled Ag will be displaced from the Ag binding site
  6. PRINCIPLE OF THE PROCEDURE It has been demonstrated that aureusS. cultures possessing clumping factor and protein A can be identified using human plasma‑coated latex particles, which agglutinate in a rapid slide procedure1. The Staphaurex* reagent consists of polystyrene latex particles which have been coated with fibrinogen and IgG. Whe
  7. toid arthritis. Many streptococcal agglutination tests have been described and proposed in the past, but the principle of subjecting the bacterial suspension to a temperature of 1200 C prior to its useas anagglutinogen (4), is anewsuggestion insofar as its clinical application for the study of streptococcal diseases is concerned; for this reaso

3 Classifications of Agglutination Techniques Immunolog

  1. (HIV-2/gp 36). The SFD HIV 1/2 PA (particle agglutination) test is based on the principle that sensitized particles are agglutinated by the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 in human serum/plasma. 3. CONTENTS OF THE SFD HIV 1/2 PA KIT. All the reagents included in the kit are intended for in vitro diagnostic use
  2. An antigen interacts with its matched antibody in agglutination tests, resulting in apparent clumping of bacterial cells. Latex particles are coated with antibodies that agglutinate certain antigens and generate a more clearly visible precipitate in latex agglutination tests. Infectious mononucleosis is diagnosed with a laboratory test
  3. PRINCIPLE OF THE PROCEDURE Serological tests are based on the fact that antibodies in serum, produced in response to exposure to bacterial antigens, will agglutination tests may be prepared by suspending organisms in 0.5% formal saline, or by the addition of formalin to brot
  4. utes
  5. The antiglobulin crossmatch is the major component of a full serologic crossmatch. Gel testing. Agglutination is graded on a scale from 0 to 4+. A: 4+ reaction = red blood cell agglutinates (RBCAs.
  6. agglutination [ah-gloo″tĭ-na´shun] 1. the action of an agglutinant substance. 2. the clumping together in suspension of antigen-bearing cells, microorganisms, or particles in the presence of specific antibodies (agglutinins). Agglutination reactions. From Applegate, 2000. 3. the process of union of the surfaces of a wound. adj., adj agglutina´tive.

PRINCIPLE OF THE TEST . When used by the recommended technique, this reagent will cause agglutination (clumping) of red blood cells the carrying the M antigen. Lack of agglutination Agglutination tests are based on the presence of agglutinating antibodies in patient sera that can react with specific antigens to form visible clumps. In the agglutination tests, the antibody - antigen reaction can be either a direct or passive agglutination reaction. In direct agglutination tests the agglutinating antibodies directly react.

Widal test: Principle, Procedure, Results, InterpretationVDRL test: Principle, Procedure, Result interpretation andMeningitis Lab Manual: Primary Culture and Presumptive ID

12.2E: Agglutination Reactions - Biology LibreText

SMI TP 3: agglutination test for Salmonella species. Information on UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations for Salmonella species. From: Public Health England. Published In the agglutination tests for Brucellosis: 1) What is the antigen? 2) Is this a direct or passive agglutination technique? How do you know? 3) Why is it important to do this agglutination tests on a patient at 2 week intervals, rather than just a single test? 4) Why is a rising titer (4 fold increase) in this test clinically significant Related WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Noun 1. agglutination test - a blood test used to identify unknown antigens; blood with the unknown antigen is mixed with a known antibody and whether or not agglutination occurs helps to identify the antigen; used in tissue matching and blood grouping and diagnosis of infections heterophil test - a blood test to detect heterophil antibodies. The C-Reactive Protein test kit is based on the principle of the latex agglutination assay described by Singer and Plotz. 6 The major advantage of this method is the rapid three (3) minute reaction time. PRINCIPLE. The CRP reagent kit (Serology Kit) is based on an immunological reaction between CRP antisera bound to biologically inert latex.

Agglutination Methods Clinical Gat

ELISA- Principle, Types and Applications. ELISA is an antigen antibody reaction. In 1971, ELISA was introduced by Peter Perlmann and Eva Engvall at Stockholm University in Sweden. It is a common laboratory technique which is usually used to measure the concentration of antibodies or antigens in blood. ELISA is a plate based assay technique. As nouns the difference between agglutination and hemagglutination is that agglutination is the act of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance; the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts while hemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells, especially as a test for the presence of antibodies The principle of nephelometry and turbidimetry is based on the scattering or absorption of light by solid or colloidal particles suspended in solution. When light is passed through the suspension, part of incident radiant energy is dissipated by absorption, reflection, and reaction while remainder is transmitted The principle of the test is based on the immunochromatographic agglutination of circulating antibodies with specific antigen using nanogold particles as the agglutination revealing agent. Samples in the form of sera, plasma, or blood were tested on the evaluation kit as per instruction by the manufacturer PRINCIPLE. Testing with both Anti-A and Anti-B is necessary to determine if red blood cells possess or lack A and/or B blood group antigens. Absence of agglutination is a negative test result, which indicates the corresponding antigen is not demonstrable. Agglutination of red blood cells with a given reagent is a positive test result, which.